Density Dependent Relationship Definition Essay


Beverton RJH and Holt SJ (1957) On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Brook BW and Bradshaw CJA (2006) Strength of evidence for density dependence in abundance time series of 1198 species. Ecology 87: 1145–1451.

Bulmer MG (1975) The statistical analysis of density dependence. Biometrics 31: 901–911.

Burnham KP and Anderson DR (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information‐Theoretic Approach. New York: Springer.

Caley MJ, Carr MH, Hixon MA et al. (1996) Recruitment and the local dynamics of open marine populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 477–500.

Cappuccino N and Price PW (eds) (1995) Population Dynamics: New Approaches and Synthesis. San Diego: Academic Press.

Courchamp F, Clutton‐Brock T and Grenfell B (1999) Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 405–410.

Dennis B and Taper ML (1994) Density dependence in time series observations of natural populations: estimation and testing. Ecology 64: 205–224.

Doherty PJ (1981) Coral reef fishes: recruitment‐limited assemblages? Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 465–470.

Doherty PJ (1998) Recruitment limitation: definitions, predictions and tests. In: Jones GP, Doherty PJ, Mapstone BD and Howlett L (eds) Reef Fish ’95: Recruitment and Population Dynamics of Coral Reef Fishes, pp. 129–131. Townsville, Australia: CRC Reef Research Center.

Fowler CW (1987) A review of density dependence in populations of large mammals. Current Mammalogy 1: 401–441.

Ginzburg LR, Ferson S and Akcakaya HR (1990) Reconstructibility of density dependence and the conservative assessment of extinction risks. Conservation Biology 4: 63–70.

Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hassell MP (1986) Detecting density dependence. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1: 90–93.

Hixon MA and Jones GP (2005) Competition, predation, and density‐dependent mortality in demersal marine fishes. Ecology 86: 2847–2859.

Hixon MA, Pacala SW and Sandin SA (2002) Population regulation: historical context and contemporary challenges of open vs. closed systems. Ecology 83: 1490–1508.

Holling CS (1959) The components of predation as revealed by a study of small, mammal predations of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist 91: 293–320.

Holt S (2009) Sunken billions – but how many? Fisheries Research 97: 3–10.

Holyoak M (1993) New insights into testing for density dependence. Oecologia 93: 435–444.

Keddy PA (1989) Competition. London: Chapman and Hall.

Kendall BE, Briggs CJ, Murdoch WW et al. (1999) Why do populations cycle? A synthesis of statistical and mechanistic modeling approaches. Ecology 80: 1789–1805.

Kingsland SE (1995) Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Murdoch WW (1994) Population regulation in theory and practice. Ecology 75: 271–287.

NERC Centre for Population Biology (1999) The Global Population Dynamics Database.

Pollard E, Lakhani KH and Rothery P (1987) The detection of density‐dependence from a series of annual censuses. Ecology 68: 2046–2055.

Poulsen JR, Osenberg CW, Clark CJ, Levey DJ and Bolker BM (2007) Plants as reef fish: fitting the functional form of seedling recruitment. American Naturalist 170: 167–183.

Rose KA, Cowan JH, Winemiller KO, Myers RA and Hilborn R (2001) Compensatory density dependence in fish populations: importance, controversy, understanding and prognosis. Fish and Fisheries 2: 293–327.

Royama T (1977) Population persistence and density dependence. Ecological Monographs 47: 1–35.

Schmitt RJ, Holbrook SJ and Osenberg CW (1999) Quantifying the effects of multiple processes on local abundance: a cohort approach for open populations. Ecology Letters 2: 294–303.

Sibly RM, Barker D, Denham MC, Hone J and Pagel M (2005) On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects. Science 309: 607–610.

Sinclair ARE and Pech RP (1996) Density dependence, stochasticity, compensation and predator regulation. Oikos 75: 164–173.

Taylor RJ (1984) Predation. London: Chapman and Hall.

Turchin P (1990) Rarity of density dependence or population regulation with lags? Nature 344: 660–663.

Turchin P (1995) Population regulation: old arguments and a new synthesis. In: Cappuccino N and Price PW (eds) Population Dynamics: New Approaches and Synthesis, pp. 19–40. San Diego: Academic Press.

Turchin P (1999) Population regulation: a synthetic view. Oikos 84: 153–159.

Turchin P (2003) Complex Population Dynamics: A Theoretical/Empirical Synthesis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Verhulst PF (1838) Notice sur la loi que la population suit dans son accroissement. Correspondances Mathématiques et Physiques 10: 113–121.

Walde SJ and Murdoch WW (1988) Spatial density dependence in parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 33: 441–466.

Woiwod IP and Hanski I (1992) Patterns of density dependence in moths and aphids. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 619–629.

Wolda H and Dennis B (1993) Density‐dependence tests, are they? Oecologia 95: 581–591.

Wright JT and Steinberg PD (2001) Effect of variable recruitment and post‐recruitment herbivory on local abundance of a marine alga. Ecology 82: 2200–2215.

Further Reading

Begon M, Mortimer M and Thompson DJ (1996) Population Ecology: A Unified Study of Animals and Plants, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Ranta E, Lundberg P and Kaitala V (2006) Ecology of Populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vandermeer JH and Goldberg DE (2003) Population Ecology: First Principles. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Density Dependent vs Density Independent

Population growth is carefully being watched and studied by every nation in the world. This is because any changes in the number of inhabitants can have a very huge effect on a country’s economy as well as on the environment.
Population growth is not only observed in the human population but also in the population ecology of both plants and animals. The analysis and study of population growth is important for the balance of the ecosystem.

Several factors are utilized to see if the Earth can sustain its population growth despite the extinction of several species and the overpopulation of some. There are two factors that are important in determining how a certain population grows or decline; density dependent factors and density independent factors.
Density dependent factors are those that are responsible for regulating the population in proportion to its density such as competition, predation, and diseases. It usually operates in a large population and causes the population either to increase or decrease depending on how it affects the ecosystem.

For example, a huge population can deplete an area’s natural resources and food supply. This will cause a shortage of these necessary elements making the area unable to provide for its population and will eventually cause the reduction of the area’s population due to hunger, thirst, and exposure to the elements when shelter is not available.
Density independent factors, on the other hand, are those that regulate the population without considering its density such as natural disasters and the weather. It operates in both large and small populations and is not based on population density.

Natural disasters like floods, fires, storms, droughts, extreme temperatures, and the disturbance and disintegration of the natural habitat of organisms can cause a decrease in their population no matter how large or small it is. Bush fires can cause damage to the habitat of several animal species. Some may die directly due to the fire, but others who will survive it will also die because of food and water inadequacy as well as the absence of shelter for them.
Density independent factors act on their own and do not change according to its density unlike density dependent factors which vary according to the population density which depends on its gain rates and loss rates.
Both density dependence and density independence may occur together in the process of determining and analyzing population growth. Density dependence may be tested through analyzing the relationship between the growth rate and density of a certain population.


1.Density dependent factors are those that regulate the growth of a population depending on its density while density independent factors are those that regulate population growth without depending on its density.
2.Examples of density dependent factors are food, shelter, predation, competition, and diseases while examples of density independent factors are natural calamities like floods, fires, tornados, droughts, extreme temperatures, and the disturbance of the habitat of living organisms.
3.Density dependent factors usually operate in large populations while density independent factors operate in both large and small populations.
4.Density independent factors act on their own while density dependent factors depend upon the gain and loss rates.

Emelda M. "Difference Between Density Dependent and Density Independent." June 13, 2011 < >.

0 Replies to “Density Dependent Relationship Definition Essay”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *